Common Questions

What difficulties are typically referred to speech language pathologists?

  • Articulation
  • Auditory processing
  • Following directions
  • Word finding
  • Vocabulary and Speech grammar / syntax
  • Asking and answering “wh-” questions (i.e. who, what, where, when, why, how)
  • Listening and reading comprehension
  • Sequencing and Narratives
  • Fluency (i.e. stuttering / stammering)
  • Voice (e.g. hoarse, nasal)
  • Pragmatic skills (i.e. the use of language in social contexts including conversational skills, and the use of body language)
  • Feeding and swallowing

These difficulties could be due to:

  • Developmental conditions such as Downs Syndrome, Autism, Cerebral Palsy
  • Neurological conditions such  as Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson’s Disease, Alzeimher’s Disease
  • Brain Trauma such as stroke, traumatic brain injury
  • Medical conditions such oro-pharyngal cancer, cleft lip & palate, pre-term birth

What do occupational therapists work on?


Occupational therapists evaluate kids' skills for playing, school performance, and daily activities and compare them with what is developmentally appropriate for that age group. The primary goal of occupational therapy is to enable people to participate in the activities of everyday life.

Occupational Therapists work on:

  • Sensory Processing Disorder (more below)
  • Behavior: Teaching children positive ways to redirect their actions instead of acting out
  • Attention: To improve focus and concentration
  • Fine motor skills: To improve grasp and release of toys, gripping a pencil, cutting, sticking etc.
  • Hand-eye coordination: To improve play and academic skills such as hitting a target, batting a ball, copying from a blackboard, etc.
  • Activities of Daily Living (ADL): Bathing, getting dressed, brushing teeth, self feeding

Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD, formerly known as "sensory integration dysfunction") is a condition that exists when sensory signals don't get organized into appropriate responses.

How early should I begin therapy?


This depends on the milestones that are expected at every age. Depending on the challenges, we can begin working with children as soon as they are born, even while they are still in the hospital.

How many sessions are required per week?


The frequency of sessions also depends on the type and severity of the difficulty and the age and attention span of the client. People can attend therapy from 1-5 times per week. In most instances however 1-2 times per week is an appropriate frequency to make optimal progress toward meeting set goals and objectives.

What can I do at home to encourage my child to speak?


Parents are encouraged to watch and participate in every speech session especially for younger children so that a language learning environment can be created at home. For older children and adults, parents or care givers are encouraged to discuss treatment plans and progress at the end of the session. Home practice worksheets and ideas are provided by the therapist.

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